A range of context-specific assistance options can be combined to meet the needs of affected people. Consider the advantages and disadvantages of each and develop the most appropriate program. [Adapted from Sphere 2018]
You can refer to the table below or download the PDF File to save for offline reference.
|Shelter Kits||Construction material, tools and fixtures needed to create or improve living space.||CRS – IEC picture guide to securing poles and plastic sheeting for a simple A-frame shelter|
|Shelter Toolkits||Construction tools and hardware needed to create or improve living space and settlement.||IFRC – Shelter Toolkit Specifications- Extract pg. 54-68 (2009)|
|Tents||Premanufactured portable shelters with a cover and a structure.
*Note: Where there is an immediate need for basic shelter CRS would typically aim to distribute materials/construct emergency shelters. This is normally more cost effective than the distribution of tents and encourages a greater sense of ownership and self-reliance. The distribution of prefabricated tents would be seen as an exceptional option where material availability for emergency shelters/rate of influx mean emergency shelter construction isn’t feasible.
|Summary of Different Tent Options & Specifications
Summaries of Different Emergency Tent Options:
Shelter Cluster, IRAQ- Tent Information Note, DRAFT v01 (2017)
UN OCHA – A guide to the use and logistics of family tents in humanitarian relief (2004)
|Return and Transit Support||Support for affected people who choose to return to their place of origin or relocate to a new location. Such support may include a wide range of services such as providing transport, transport fares or vouchers, or items such as tools, materials and seed stocks.|
|Repairs||Describes restoring a building from damage or decay to a sound working condition, where it meets the required standards and specifications. Applies to minor damage.||CRS – Technical Guidance for repairs following typhoon Haiyan: Details build back better options and tools and templates for implementation|
|Retrofitting||Involves strengthening and/or structural system modification of the buildings’ structure. The goal is to make a building more resistant to future hazards by having safety features installed.||BuildChange – USAID
Seismic Retrofit of Housing in Post-Disaster Situations: Basic Engineering Principles for Development Professionals
|Host Assistance||Supporting the host to continue to shelter affected people includes support to expand or adapt an existing host family shelter, or financial and material support for running costs.||CRS – Lessons and Recommendations for a Host Family Approach in Transitional Shelter and Settlements
IFRC – Assisting host families and communities after crises and natural disaster A step-by step guide (2012)
|Rental Assistance||Assistance to affected households to rent accommodation and land can include financial contributions, support to obtain a fair agreement or advice on property standards. Rent is an ongoing expense, thus plan for exit strategies.||CRS Case Study – Rental Assistance for Syrian Refugees in Jordan|
|Temporary Shelters||Intended to be removed once the next stage of shelter solution is offered.|
|Transitional Shelters||Rapid shelters designed from materials and techniques that could transition into more permanent structures. The shelter should be upgradeable, reusable, re-saleable or moveable from temporary sites to permanent locations.||CRS – Manual de Construcción De Albergues Respuesta Humanitaria, Manabí – Esmeraldas, Ecuador (2017)
CRS – Transitional shelter design drawing – Philippines (2015)
Caritas Antilles – Transitional shelter design drawing (2017)
|Core Housing||Housing units planned, designed and constructed to be eventually part of a permanent house but not completing it. Core housing allows the future process of extension.|
|Reconstruction or Rebuilding||Structures that cannot be repaired or retrofitted and require to be built anew.||Architecture for Humanity, Concern & CRS – Grand Ravine Diagnostic Report and Community Development Plan Technical and Participatory Report (Draft)- Section 6 (2014)|
|Information Centers||Offer advice and guidance to affected people: technical, administrative, legal and accountability.|
|Legal and Administrative Expertise||Helps the affected people to be aware of their rights and to receive the administrative support they need free of charge or at a reduced cost.|
|Securing Tenure||Guarantees legal protection against forced eviction, harassment and other threats.||NRC – Shelter Tenure Guidance|
|Infrastructure and Settlement Planning||Improves the services of a community and support the planning of sustainable transitional settlement and reconstruction solutions.||Architecture for Humanity, Concern & CRS – Grand Ravine Diagnostic Report and Community Development Plan Technical and Participatory Report (Draft)- Section 6 (2014)|
|Collective Accommodation Support||Existing buildings can be used as collective centers or evacuation centers ad to provide rapid shelters. These can be schools, community buildings, religious facilities, etc.|
|Managing Settlements and Collective Centers||Implies the management of settlements or centers to ensure dignity, safety and quality.|
|Debris Removal and Management of the Deceased||Removal of rubble and similar waste.
For management of deceased, refer to Shelter guidance, Sector WASH.
|MSB/UNDP – Debris Management Guidelines (2010)|
|Rehabilitate and Install Common Infrastructure||Recovers public infrastructure such as water supply and sanitation facilities, bridges, electricity, etc.|
|Rehabilitate and Construct Community Facilities||Recovers social infrastructure such as education spaces, health facilities, meeting places, economic centers such as markets, etc.||CRS Case Study – Partnership to Restore Vital Hospital Facilities in Port-Au-Prince Case Study (2010)|
|Urban or Community Planning and Zoning||Involves the conception of areas after a crisis so that regulations and general interests are respected.||Architecture for Humanity, Concern & CRS, Grand Ravine Diagnostic Report and Community Development Plan Technical and Participatory Report (Draft)- Full Report (2014) (French & English):
|Relocation||Involves rebuilding housing and assets for a family or community in a different location.|